Foods, 2021, 10(11), 2827.
Authors: Bastian, F.; Hutabarat, O.S.; Dirpan, A.; Nainu, F.; Harapan, H.; Emran, T.B.; Simal-Gandara, J.
Coffee is consumed not just for its flavor, but also for its health advantages. The quality of coffee beverages is affected by a number of elements and a series of processes, including: the environment, cultivation, post-harvest, fermentation, storage, roasting, and brewing to produce a cup of coffee. The chemical components of coffee beans alter throughout this procedure. The purpose of this article is to present information about changes in chemical components and bioactive compounds in coffee during preharvest and postharvest. The selection of the appropriate cherry maturity level is the first step in the coffee manufacturing process. The coffee cherry has specific flavor-precursor components and other chemical components that become raw materials in the fermentation process. During the fermentation process, there are not many changes in the phenolic or other bioactive components of coffee. Metabolites fermented by microbes diffuse into the seeds, which improves their quality. A germination process occurs during wet processing, which increases the quantity of amino acids, while the dry process induces an increase in non-protein amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In the roasting process, there is a change in the aroma precursors from the phenolic compounds, especially chlorogenic acid, amino acids, and sugars found in coffee beans, to produce a distinctive coffee taste.